Foraging in Minnesota: Wild Plums

Read More Wild plum foraging

When it comes to foraging, nothing says “end of summer” like wild plums. During that late August/early September time with cool mornings and moderately warm afternoons, I know without looking that American and Canada plums are ripe. 

Prunus, spp.

Most people don’t know it, but Minnesota is home to two species of wild plums. 

American plum (Prunus americana) is by far more common. It prefers upland locations and spreads vegetatively, forming dense thickets. According to reputable sources, it can be found all over the state, but is definitely more common around farmland and hardwood forest openings. 

The other of our plums is Canada plum (Prunus nigra). It is less common, and more fond of shaded surroundings and higher soil moisture. It is more likely to be encountered the farther north you go (you know, toward Canada). 

Telling the two apart is not always easy; it can be more art than science. Still, putting together enough clues should help one make a confident diagnosis. 

First, consider the leaf shape. P. nigra (generally) have rounder leaves, while P. americana’s are more ovate, sometimes decidedly elongated/pointed. Also, americana leaves have a more prominent sawtooth margin. 

Second, consider the location and each specie’s general preferences. Canada=shadier, wetter, northern. American=sunny, drier, southern and western. 

Last, the Minnesota Wildflowers website points out that Canada plum has tiny glands on the leaf stalk, whereas American plum may have glands on the leaf blade near the stalk. Believe me, it can be a struggle to find enough leaves or stems with glands to be certain of their location. However, sometimes it’s a slam dunk. 

Wild plum foraging/harvesting

The Harvest

The window for a plum harvest can vary from year to year, like many other fruits. This year was a tough one, and I believe that was mainly because of the drought. Plums were generally hard to come by. They were often on the small end, and they ripened a bit early, too. The plums that were most ripe on August 19th, for instance, were small and on bushes with yellow leaves (top photo). 

In general, I expect American plums to be ripe around the Twin Cities area to be in their prime in the last week of August through the first week of September. That’s also true for Canada plums I’ve picked in the north central part of the state. But as I said, this year was early. If you don’t want to risk missing out, I’d recommend keeping tabs on your best plum thickets from mid-August onward. 

Wild plums can be tricky to time just right. Picked a little early, they’ll be mealy and less sweet. Picked too late, they’ll definitely seem overripe. When they’re just right, there’s nothing better. Problem is, it sometimes all plays out in a few days. 

In the last couple years I’ve experimented with picking them on the early side and letting them ripen on the counter at home. It works very well if you keep daily tabs on their progress. The trick is to pick them as they get close to their final, purplish stage. Yellow is way too early. Timed right, ripening takes only a couple days. When they feel nice and soft, they’re probably there; it wouldn’t hurt to taste one or two. They should be juicy and sweet. I recommend keeping them in a closed plastic container to keep the fruit flies away. 

Tasty, tasty plums

Plum jam is a great way to use them if you don’t eat them all fresh. A couple years ago we made a batch of jam for the first time. It was….okay. This year we tried using plum pulp with pin cherry juice, and the result was better. The ratio was about 3 parts plum to 1 part cherry juice. The plum texture was present, but cherry flavor came through nicely. 

I’ll continue experimenting similarly in the future, because I believe that like juneberries, plums make a good main ingredient for mixed fruit jam. I suspect it could be a good use for leftover amounts of chokecherry juice, for instance. Maybe I’ll incorporate some apple from our tree somehow. 

What is your experience making plum jam? Any suggestions or crazy ideas you’d like to share? Leave a comment below!

~

If you’re interested in learning about more foraged foods, please visit the What to Forage page.

Foraging in Minnesota: Wild Grapes

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I never paid much attention to wild grapes until a couple years ago. Growing up in the Minnesota River valley, we often encountered beefy grape vines in the woods that disappeared into the tops of the tallest treees. They were sturdy enough to swing on if you could break them at the bottom. The fruit I tasted on occasion wasn’t very good compared to the green and red grapes from the store, so I wrote them off in my youth. For decades, I didn’t know what I was missing. 

Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Wild Grapes”

Foraging in Minnesota: Sand Cherry

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A couple days ago, my daughter found a single cherry. I could not have been more elated. 

It was our first Sand cherry. We’d been searching hard for two whole days, covering almost 10 miles on foot, in three distinct parts of Minnesota. The triumph was not so much the harvest (ultimately a couple dozen cherries) as it was the successful conclusion to our foraging quest. 

Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Sand Cherry”

Foraging in Minnesota: Blackberries

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It’s blackberry season. While I sit here typing this out in mid-August, I have a hunch there are literally tons of them out there going unpicked. And while not every year is good for blackberry picking, we’ve had good rainfall in 2020, which is a good sign. It was the same last year, when I literally picked gallon after gallon throughout most of August and into September, within a mile of my home.  Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Blackberries”

Foraging in Minnesota: Hedgehog Mushrooms

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Yesterday I found my first hedgehog mushrooms of the season. It was on a short outing with my daughter; she was after raspberries and I wanted to follow up on the sudden burst of mushroom activity in the yard. I suspected some edible mushrooms would be available, mostly chanterelles and lobsters. Those were good finds, but I hollered out loud when the first few hedgehogs appeared on the forest floor- they are among my most favorite mushrooms to eat. Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Hedgehog Mushrooms”

Foraging in Minnesota: Dwarf Raspberries

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Every year about this time there is a lull in the foraging season here in Minnesota. The early season has passed and the frenzy over morels, fiddleheads, and ramps is over. The summer mushrooms and berries really haven’t started. However, while raspberries, blackberries, thimbleberries, and other members of the Rubus clan have yet to even finish blooming, their little brother is here to take center stage. 

Enter Dwarf Raspberry. Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Dwarf Raspberries”

Foraging in Minnesota: Ostrich Ferns

Read More Foraging fiddleheads

The Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) seems to be gaining in popularity among foragers, if mentions in social media are any indication. Posts about “fiddleheads” are becoming more and more common this time of year. Also apparent in the social media soup is how much confusion there is when it comes to knowing which species are edible and how they are identified. 

Some people- a proportional few- are vocal in their opinion that the Ostrich fern is not the only edible fern in Minnesota. While that may be true for sometimes complicated reasons, I will not subscribe to that school of thought. Allow me to explain why.  Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Ostrich Ferns”

Foraging in Minnesota: Ramps

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Once again, I blame social media. For what, you ask? For the ridiculous fame that ramps seem to be “enjoying” nowadays.

Of course, people have known about ramps for a long time, even holding spring festivals for them in parts of the eastern U.S. where they used to grow prolifically. I say “used to” because it is well known that wild ramp populations are hurting. Because of that, they really don’t need any extra harvest pressure. Every foraging group I subscribe to on Facebook, however, is currently experiencing Ramp Mania. Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Ramps”

Foraging in Minnesota: Black Cherry

Read More Minnesota black cherry

I’m sure you’ve heard of “black cherry,” either as a flavoring or as a type of wood. For me, the name evokes a certain flavor of candy. But did you know it’s a harvestable fruit here in Minnesota? Yes, it is. And this year’s harvest was outstanding. 

I’d been waiting several years for a good crop of these cherries- perhaps 4 or 5. They were not something I went out of my way for, but I usually checked on a couple different trees at least once toward the end of each summer. Well, this year, it was clear conditions were somehow just right. Branches were full of green clusters by July all over in my area.  Continue reading “Foraging in Minnesota: Black Cherry”

Do Something New: Tapping Maple Trees and Making Syrup

Read More Minnesota maple basswood forest

When you try something new, sometimes it doesn’t go so well. A week ago, it was looking like I wouldn’t see so much as a drop of maple sap coming out of my taps. There was more than a foot of snow on the ground, and although the temperatures seemed perfect, nothing was happening.  Continue reading “Do Something New: Tapping Maple Trees and Making Syrup”